In English grammar, Until and Unless are identified as subordinating conjunctions. They are normally used to join two or more than two sentences. Look at the following sentences:
- Stay here quietly until I ensure your safety.
- You can’t realise your dream unless you are honest and hardworking.
In the above examples, the word Until is connecting two clauses/sentences i.e. “Stay here quietly” and “I ensure your safety”. Similarly the word Unless is joining two clauses/sentences i.e. “You can’t realize your dream” and “you are honest and hardworking.”
Where lies the difference between these two subordinating conjunctions? We shall now discuss in detail with examples and try to find out the core meanings of Until and Unless and the situations where they can be used.
Until vs Unless – Difference
As we have discussed earlier that the word Until is a conjunction and connects two or more than two sentences. Now we shall proceed with the core meaning of this conjunction and the situation where it is used.
The word Until as a conjunction expresses time and is used in the sense of “Up to the time” in a sentence. It has a negative meaning. Therefore, the negative word “Not” is not used with Until. It conveys that a particular thing will occur but when it is going to occur, is quite uncertain. Whereas the word Unless as a conjunction is used in the sense of “If not” in a sentence. It has a negative meaning and expresses a condition that may or may not occur. In simple words, we can say that the word Until is a conjunction of time, and the word Unless is a conjunction of condition. Look at the following sentences and try to identify differences.
Until in a sentence
- We should wait until the rain stops. (Expresses Time)
- I won’t leave you until you finish your work.
- He will not go abroad until he gets married.
- The officer can’t initiate any action against him until he reaches here.
- Please stay in the shed until it gets dark.
- Wait until I return.
- You will not get to play with your ball until you complete your assignment.
- The company will not refund your money until you send the original bill.
- I can’t start work on this project until it is approved by the competant authority.
- You have to wait until you are called.
Unless in a sentence
- My business will collapse unless you help me. (Expresses condition)
- You can’t apply for this post unless you are a graduate.
- The doctor will not operate unless she deposits the fees.
- Unless he compromises, the dispute will not be settled.
- Unless they report the officer, they will be in trouble.
- Merry can’t pass the examination, unless she joins the coaching institute.
- Don’t turn off the television unless the show ends.
- Unless you pay in full, we can’t ensure the guarantee of this device.
- The lender will not provide you with a loan unless you show them your income proof.
- The employer will not promote you unless you complete this project.
Until as a Preposition
The word Until also functions as a preposition and is used in the sense of “Up to” in a sentence. It is always used before a noun or pronoun to show its relation with the other words in a sentence. For example:
- The captain of the Titanic continued sending SOS until his death.
- Danny works in his office until 9:00 p.m.
- The guest will stay in the hotel until next monday.
- I could not get a seat in the train until Luxemburg.
- Lucy will get no allowances until her retirement.
- She is unmarried until now.
- The child listented to the story until midnight.
Unless and Until – Can we use both of them together in a sentence?
In our day-to-day life, we hear people using a set phrase of conjunctions “Unless and Until” either in speech or writing. It is frequently used during conversation. Now the question arises if it is semantically correct. Can we use two conjunctions together in a sentence? Some grammarians are of the opinion that it is grammatically incorrect and some say that it can be used only during the conversation but not in writing. Since the opinion of the experts differs in this regard, we can only conclude keeping in view the general acceptance of this phrase that it can be used only for the purpose of emphasis. For example;
- I will not resign from the post unless and until I complete 35 years of my service. (Emphasis)
- Parents will not permit their children to join the schools unless and until the Covid pandemic persists in the country. (Emphasis)
- The officer will not release his salary unless and until he asks for the forgiveness. (Emphasis)
- John will not be permitted to take the examinaion unless and until he pays all the dues. (Emphasis)
- Unless and until you realize your mistake, you will not be allowed to join the party. (Emphasis)
- The farmers will keep on protesting against the government unless and until their demans are accepted. (Emphasis)
- The candidates have to stay in the examination hall unless and until the invigilator collects the answer sheets. (Emphasis)
- CBSE will not issue any certificate unless and until the teacher completes the online course in teaching pedagogy. (Emphasis)
- I will not go anywhere unless and until you refund my money. (Emphasis)
- Unless and untill I am paid handsomely, I will not do any extra work. (Emphasis)
Unless and until or Until and unless – Which is in proper sequence?
There is another query from the readers regarding the proper sequence of these two conjunctions whether it should be written or spoken as “Unless and until” or Until and unless”. Which of the two is correct? Now I tell you the correct proper sequence of this set phrase in a layman’s lingo. Try to understand with the help of the following example:
- Using the sequence “Until and unless” would be just like as you say – “John killed his friend and severely thrashed him.”
- Using the sequence “Unless and until” would be just like as you say – “John severely thrashed his friend and killed him.”
Which of the sequence do you think, is most appropriate. Definitely, the second example seems to be correct and in proper sequence. Now it is clear that we have to avoid the use of the sequence “Until and unless” as it seems to be quite irrelevant.
There are some other phrases like “Unless and Until” that are equally acceptable in the English language. Grammar experts discourage this redundancy but have to accept it as it has become a part of our life. Look at the following phrases:
- Over and above
- Anyone and everyone
- Any and all
- Forever and always
- Each and everyone